, investorer vet et par som de ekteskapet slik singler det de har aldri intensjonen vår grunnleggende funksjonene er jeg spørsmålet ja bare. American Heritage Dictionary (5th.). ", Oxford English Dictionary. 80 Some acronyms are chosen deliberately to avoid a name considered undesirable: For example, Verliebt in Berlin ( ViB a German telenovela, was first intended to be Alles nur aus Liebe ( All for Love but was changed to avoid the resultant acronym anal. The distinction, when made, hinges on whether the abbreviation is pronounced as a word or as a string of individual letters. Examples include SIA (pronounced si a a respelling of the French acronym sida ( aids VOA (pronounced vwa a literal reading of the English initialism for Voice of America ; and nasa (pronounced na za borrowed directly from the English acronym. In another example, the word " ( National People's Congress ) can be broken into four parts: " "the whole nation " "people " "representatives " "conference". The logic of this style is that the pronunciation is reflected graphically by the capitalization scheme. Baum (1962) American Speech Vol.
Unlike with Chinese, such shortened words are considered portmanteau words or blend words rather than acronyms or initialisms, because the Vietnamese alphabet still requires each component word to be written as more than one character. Indonesian edit See also: List of Indonesian acronyms and abbreviations There is also a widespread use of acronyms in Indonesia in every aspect of social life. The widespread, frequent use of acronyms across the whole range of registers is a relatively new linguistic phenomenon in most languages, becoming increasingly evident since the mid-20th century. By 1943, the term acronym had been used in English to recognize abbreviations (and contractions of phrases) that were pronounced as words. Initialism, an older word than acronym, seems to be too little known to the general public to serve as the customary term standing in contrast with acronym in a narrow sense.
Swahili edit In Swahili, acronyms are common for naming organizations such as "tuki which stands for Taasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili (the Institute for Swahili Research). However, Kate Turabian, writing about style in academic writings, 50 allows for an apostrophe to form plural acronyms "only when an abbreviation contains internal periods or both capital and lowercase letters". These trials tend to have full names that are accurately descriptive of what the trial is about but are thus also too long to serve practically as names within the syntax of a sentence, so a short. Retrieved December 19, 2012. UBS means RIP for Warburg. The short-form names of clinical trials and other scientific studies constitute a large class of acronyms that includes many contrived examples, as well as many with a partial rather than complete correspondence of letters to expansion components.
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||TNN (The Nashville/National Network) also renamed itself "The New TNN" for a brief interlude. Fowler's Modern English Usage (Third Revised.). They can be interpreted similar to American university appellations, such as "UPenn" or "Texas Tech." Some acronyms are shortened forms of the school's name, like how Hongik University Hongik Daehakgyo ) is shortened to Hongdae "Hong, the big school". My memory is beginning to fail.
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||Each letter in an initialism corresponds to one morpheme that is, one syllable. HCM ( Thành ph H Chí Minh, Ho Chi Minh City thpt ( trung hc ph thông, high school CLB ( câu lc b, club csdl ( c s d liu, database NXB ( nhà. For the use of acronyms on Wikipedia, see. While observing this distinction has some virtue in precision, it may be lost on many people, for whom the term acronym refers to both kinds of abbreviations." "acronym" "Collins Dictionaries", accessed August 13, 2015: "a pronounceable name.
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"Very deep multiply nested acronyms". In addition to the use of a specific number replacing that many letters, the more general "x" can be used to replace an unspecified number of letters. In some cases alternative pronunciations are used, as in Saiky for, from Saitama Tkyo rather than Sai. Citation needed One representative example, from the.S. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 7, 2011. Lenition edit In languages such as Scottish Gaelic and Irish, where lenition (initial consonant mutation) is commonplace, acronyms must also be modified in situations where case and context dictate. Likewise, the Gaelic acronym for "television" ( gd: telebhisean ) is TBh, pronounced TV, as in English.
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For the acronym html tag, see. Enforcing the general convention, most professional editors citation needed case-fold such expansions to their standard orthography when editing manuscripts for publication. Longer examples include chxhcnvn ( Cng hòa X hi ch ngha Vit Nam, Socialist Republic of Vietnam ) and mtdtgpmnvn ( Mt trn Dân tc Gii phóng min Nam Vit Nam, Viet Cong ). Jalan Tol (Toll Road) Jagorawi (Jakarta-Bogor-Ciawi) and Purbaleunyi (Purwakarta-Bandung-Cileunyi Joglo Semar (Jogja-solo-semarang). For example, the army offense of being absent without official leave was abbreviated to ".W.O.L. The acronyms " AD " and " BC " are often smallcapped as well, as in: "From 4004 bc to ad 525".
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Turabian,., A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7th Edition, subsection.1.2 Modern Language Association (MLA) Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th Edition 2009, subsection.2.7.g Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA 5th Edition. 35 In English, acronyms pronounced as words may be a 20th-century phenomenon. Literary Metaphors and Other Linguistic Innovations in Computer Language" Crystal, David. An example that takes only the initial letters from its component words is ( Tzahal, for, Israel Defense Forces ). Archived from the original on April 10, 2007. "Acronyms (and other forms of abbreviation Department of Homeland Security, ". BIV " They are also singel dating danske erotiske historier
used as mental checklists, for example in aviation: " gumps which is Other examples of mnemonic acronyms are " CAN slim and "pavpanic" as well as " pemdas ". Similarly, protein and gene nomenclature, which uses symbols extensively, includes such terms as the name of the nacht protein domain, which reflects the symbols of some proteins that contain the domainnaip (NLR family apoptosis inhibitor protein C2TA (major histocompatibility complex class II transcription. While observing this distinction has some virtue in precision, it may be lost on many people, for whom the term acronym refers to both kinds of abbreviations. This old convention is still followed for a limited number of English abbreviations, such. The requirement of forming a word is what distinguishes an acronym from an abbreviation (or initialism as it is also called). A few high-tech companies have taken the redundant acronym to the extreme: for example, ISM Information Systems Management Corp. 79 At least one study has evaluated the citation impact and other traits of acronym-named trials compared with others, 80 finding both good aspects (mnemonic help, name recall) and potential flaws ( connotatively driven bias ). Garner's Modern American Usage. Another common example is " RAM memory which is redundant because "RAM" random-access memory includes the initial of the word "memory". Archived from the original on June 22, 2008. Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press,. . Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. The Hebrew language has a long history of formation of acronyms pronounced as words, stretching back many centuries. This stands for Many highways are also named by the acronym method;.g. "yaba-compatible" (where "yaba" stands for "yet another bloody acronym is used to mean that a term's acronym can be pronounced but is not an offensive word,.g. The pronunciation of an acronym is based on the typical rules of pronouncing words in a language and is not made up of the sounds of the names of individual letters. Hebrew edit Main article: Hebrew acronyms It is common to take more than just one initial letter from each of the words composing the acronym; regardless of this, the abbreviation sign gershayim is always written between the second-last. The distinction from acronym is not universally agreed-upon; in general, words such as nato, where the letters form a word, are regarded as acronyms, those such as FBI, where the letters sound as letters, are initialisms. Oxford English Dictionary : initialism.